381 N Broadway
Sleepy Hollow, NY 10591
Gwen Kopeinig and Diane Moller
This week-long unit gives students experience in research, round table discussions, and participation in a game highlighting the value of trade to the early New York colony.More Overview
- Why do explorers explore?
- How does trade affect the New York region in general and Philipsburg Manor in particular?
Students will learn why explorers came to the New York colony and how trade routes affected life there.
- Connections between exploration, slavery, and trade
- Map use
Suggested Time Frame(s)This lesson will take five 45-minute sessions.
Day 1 - Early New York Explorers. In class, using your social studies text, students take notes about early New York explorers - Henry Hudson, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Jacques Cartier, Christopher Columbus, Samuel de Chaplain.
Days 2 and 3 - Research and Game Card Preparation
Teacher preparation: List important trade items identified and photographed at the Philipsburg site visit (see Life and Trade on a Dutch Manor-1750 lesson) and locate appropriate research materials that amplify each. Appropriate items include salt, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, pepper, baskets, beads, textiles, furs, metal, porcelain, pottery, and wooden. Include humans -- enslaved Africans -- but be sure to talk about the difference between trading goods and people. Choose research materials at varied reading levels so this task can be differentiated.
Lesson: Assign each student a research topic -- a New York explorer or a trade item. Students will take notes on a graphic organizer that mirrors the final game card (see attachments). Note that our students found explorers easier to research than trade items. When they complete their research, have students select a photograph, representing their topic, from the photo sheets of pictures they took at Philipsburg. (See our lesson, Life and Trade on a Dutch Manor, 1750.)
Explorer pictures may be located from research sources. Students then complete a finished game card with an explorer or trade item. Trade item cards should include origin, what it is, use, and comments. Explorer cards should contain the explorers' name, nationality, who he sailed for, what he was looking for, what he found, and any additional comments.
Day 4 - Explorers and the Triangle of Trade
Teacher preparation: Use a large piece of paper or plastic (such as a white shower curtain) to trace the outline of North America, the Caribbean, South America, the west coast of Europe, and Africa with the Atlantic Ocean in between.
Lesson: Spread the map on the floor. Students sit around the map with their trade or explorer cards. First, have the explorer students show their route and explain what they were searching for. Next students with trade items move to the area of the floor that shows where their item originated.
Have an explorer select an item at its origination point and "sail" to another part of the world that needs that item. Explorers then trade the item for something that needs to go somewhere else. Students continue trading until they reach their point of origin with an item needed there. Each explorer will have a turn until all items have been traded to another region.
Day 5 - Round Table Discussion - Tying it all Together
Teacher preparation: For homework the previous night, give students short readings on explorers and spices (see attachments).
Lesson: Divide the class into groups of 10-12. When students are in their groups, give pairs of students a part of the Philipse inventory (see attachments). Have the pairs create three sets -- items produced at Philipsburg Manor, items produced elsewhere in the area, and items traded from a different part of the world.
Once each pair has made their lists, have the groups compare and discuss their sets. You may want to give them some guidelines for roundtable discussions - each person should have an opportunity to talk, begin talking when there is a break in the conversation -- do not raise your hand, refer to the text in your comments. You can prompt their discussions with a question like, "Why do explorers explore?"
Students may use the homework reading and/or the maps to explain their ideas. End the discussion with an "Exit Slip" (see attachments).
- Reference materials, such as age-appropriate encyclopedias and books about explorers
- Template for making explorer and trade item cards (see attachments)
- Photographs of trade items from your Philipsburg trip
- Why Explorers Explore handout (see attachments)
- Importance of spices in the 1500's (see attachments)
- New York: Adventures in Time and Place, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, NY, 2000
- Explorer's Exit Slip (see attachments)
- Pre-visit materials from Philipsburg Manor including (1) Inventory of the Estate of Mr. Adolph Philipse, 1749 (2) Map of the Atlantic World Outlining the Trading Network of the Philipse Family, and (3) Map of the World (see attachments)
What Should Students Know At The End of This Lesson
See content and concept understandings above
What Should Students Be Able To Do at the End of This Lesson
- Participate in a roundtable discussion
- Use maps to identify trade routes
How do you assess student learning?
- Reasearch for and development of trading card
- Quality of participation in class discussions and games